Author(s): S. Kanchana and J. Santhanalakshmi
Despite formidable global efforts, cancer continues to be the leading cause of human death. Prevailing anticancer drugs, although effective in controlling neoplastic growth, the eventual toxicity on normal cells and other health complications caused by them are inevitable. The metal nanoparticles by virtue of their specificity and selective toxicity are promising to be safe anticancer drugs. In this study, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) capped three transition metal nanoparticles namely copper (PVP-CuNP), nickel (PVP-NiNP) and silver (PVP-AgNP) were synthesized by bottom up wet chemical method. Using MTT assay the cytotoxic and anticancer potentials of these nanoparticles were tested against normal (Vero) and human lung cancer (A549) cells in vitro. The cytotoxicity and anticancer efficacy of these nanoparticles were determined in terms of IC50 value and longevity of inhibitory effect on relative growth rate (RGR). Continuous culturing of cells in the presence of IC50 doses of these nanoparticles was carried out to determine the longevity of their anticancer activity. The toxic doses (µg/mL) of PVP-CuNP, PVP-NiNP and PVP-AgNP on Vero (normal) cell lines respectively were 11.80, 6.70 and 6.35, while were 1.75, 1.90 and 1.40 on A549 cells. The longevity of anticancer efficacy in terms of displaying qualified grade of activity of these nanoparticles were 3, 5 and 3 days respectively. Overall, the silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNP) demonstrated better efficacy and moderate cytotoxicity with longer anticancer activity at minimal doses.