Perspective - International Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Analysis ( 2022) Volume 10, Issue 3


Lui Sin*
Department of Molecular and Chemical Genetic, Jilin University, Changchun, China
*Corresponding Author:
Lui Sin, Department of Molecular and Chemical Genetic, Jilin University, Changchun, China, Email:

Received: 01-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. IJCPA-22-77539; Editor assigned: 05-Sep-2022, Pre QC No. IJCPA-22-77539 (PQ); Reviewed: 20-Sep-2022, QC No. IJCPA-22-77539; Revised: 27-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. IJCPA-22-77539 (R); Published: 04-Oct-2022, DOI: 10.21276/2395-2466.22.10.084


Numerous rheumatic musculoskeletal conditions, including Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), Spondyloarthritis (SpA), Osteoarthritis (OA), and systemic lupus erythematosus, are characterised by synovial inflammation (lupus). A synovial cavity containing SF and a synovial lining (synovium) predominantly made of synovial fibroblasts are seen in synovial joints.

Immune cells such neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages penetrate the joint during inflammation, and SF builds up. It is of interest to understand the pathophysiology of disease, hence the cells and soluble mediators present at these local sites of inflammation are frequently researched.

For many years, synovial fluid cytokines have attracted attention. More recently, studies on lipid-derived inflammatory mediators in RA and OA have done the same. The frequency and phenotype of particular T and B cell subsets, as well as soluble mediators, were studied alongside monocytes and NK cell distribution in a variety of rheumatic musculoskeletal illnesses. Synovial fluid is also employed for diagnostic purposes, such as determining the levels of antigen-specific antibodies or the White Blood Cell (WBC) count, in addition to experimental research.

As part of routine clinical care, synovial fluid is frequently aspirated from the inflamed joints of arthritis patients to ease their suffering and create space for the injection of medications or the performance of diagnostic procedures. In comparison to synovium, which can only be retrieved through a more invasive treatment like arthroplasty or synovial biopsy, it is therefore more easily available for research. The synovial fluid lubricates the joint and serves as a vehicle for cells and nutrients. It is made up of an ultrafiltrate of plasma that is rich in several proteins, including hyaluronan.

The synovial fibroblasts create hyaluronan, which has a 105 greater concentration in synovial fluid than in plasma. In the synovial fluid, hyaluronan creates dense mesh networks that give the fluid its viscosity. It is difficult to handle synovial fluid in a laboratory setting because of its viscosity. This issue can be solved by treating synovial fluid with hyaluronidase, which disassembles the intricate web of hyaluronan fibres. In fact, certain studies that examined horse SF or SF from non-inflammatory illnesses have demonstrated that there can be technical problems when assessing untreated SF.

It has been demonstrated that pre-treatment of SF with hyaluronidase enhances cytokine recovery in a polystyrene, but not a magnetic bead, Luminex test. Hyaluronidase treatment is moreover regularly carried out before to proteome and metabolomic analysis because this is necessary to avoid mass spectrometer blockage. Hyaluronidase therapy isn't frequently employed in arthritis research because there haven't been any reports on its significance as part of the usual SF processing technique. For instance, in more than half of the research examining SF immune cells in inflammatory joint disorders, hyaluronidase therapy is not addressed.


In routine practise, SF is gathered, aliquoted, and stored prior to analysis to allow for the simultaneous investigation of soluble mediators in a number of patients. Then, one aliquot is utilised per subject to measure soluble mediators. However, it is uncertain whether the soluble mediator levels in the aliquots are comparable given that they were obtained and kept prior to hyaluronidase treatment. Furthermore, there is disagreement regarding whether inflammatory cells should be examined before or after hyaluronidase treatment and the impact of the treatment on the recovery of cells from SF.